This FAQ is all about mixer outputs. If you want to know about inputs (ie for Mics, Guitars, Keyboards) this FAQ is not for you.

 mixer outputs

The output connections is where you connect your mixer to various components like amps, powered speakers or recording devices. The outputs on a mixer come in 3 types:

XLR & TRS  Balanced  +4dBu  1.2V
RCA & TS Unbalanced  -10dBv 0.3V
Headphones Unbalanced Amplified   

A Balanced cable will generally have 3 conductors (2 signal and one ground). One signal is reversed in polarity. With the correct gear, the cable noise can then be cancelled out.

Generally the XLR outputs will sound louder than the RCA.

For distances greater than 10m - use the Balanced XLR outputs to reduce noise.

TS: Tip and Sleeve (mono plug)

TRS: Tip, Ring and Sleeve (stereo looking plug...but is generally used for balanced signal in this case) 


Today, the airwaves are full of transmissions - and wireless microphone transmissions can suffer from interference.

Due to the incompetence and lack of forsight of our Australian Government, equipment suppliers have had difficulty finding safe frequencies for wireless equipment - and as a result wireless gear is prone to reliabilty issues. So if you can, use cables - and only use wireless if you have too.

Hero4 SilverThese are our favourite settings for low light video (with relatively low noise) on the Hero4 Silver...

Resolution: 2.7K allows for cropping with no effect on light.
Frames Per Second: 25 best for Australian 50Hz power supplies - avoids strobing.
Field of View: Linear  No Fisheye
Spot Meter: ON Will set exposure with what is center of the frame.
Protune: ON Allow extra settings
White Balance: Auto or 5500 Use 5500 if matching with other cameras - Average Daylight
Color: GroPro Color Use Flat to grade with other cameras
Shutter: Auto  
ISO Limit: 800 1600 will show more grain. 6400 is terrible
Sharpness: Medium  
EV Comp: 0.0 Exposure Compensation.

BenringerX32 Mixing EQ

Here are some EQ guidelines for mixing live performances of acoustic style instruments. Every gig is different and requires unique EQ settings - it depends on how large the band is, what instruments are playing, and making spaces for instruments/vocals to produce balanced and clear audio.


100 Hz and below: Rumble: Mostly wind, mic-handling noise, stage/floor vibrations. Cut this out.
200 Hz Boom: This frequency is usually where you'll find the "head cold" sound. The female voice may run a little higher, but this is the ballpark.
400Hz Honk: Honky or Boxy sound. Sometimes you need to cut this slightly.
800 to 1,000 Hz   Word Clarity/Nasality: Not enough and intelligibility of some lyrics may be unintelligible, too much and you get the teacher from Peanuts
5,000 Hz Presence: Use to lift the vocal above in the mix. Adds some energy, or some "buzz" to a vocal. Not enough, and the vocal may sound deflated, flat, and dull.
4,000 to 8,000 Hz Sizzle/Sibilants: Typically this is the range a de-esser is handling – the "sss" sound. Male sibilance is typically 3-7k Hz and female sibilance is typically 5-9k Hz.
10,000 Hz and up Air: Apply a light shelf boost here to open up the vocal a little.


40 to 80 Hz  Bottom: Especially with five-string variations, this is where the bottom resonances of most basses live
80 to 200 Hz Fundamentals: The primary fundamental of the bass. Right around 180 to 200 Hz is where you can try to cut in on a bass that is too "boomy" to clean it up while preserving fundamentals
200 to 600 Hz Overtones: These are the upper harmonics of most bass tones, depending on the sound you're interested in. Lift these for more tonal carlity/definition.
300 to 500 Hz Wood: Particularly in upright basses, it's that distinctive, woody bark
800 to 1,600k Hz Bite: The growl and attack of most basses can be either emphasized or toned down around here
2,000 to 5,000 Hz String noise: Sound of the strings – normally cut this out.


 40 to 60 Hz Bottom: The tone of the reverberation in the shell, sometimes too rumbly, can be undefined/indeterminate depending on the mic'ing/speakers
 60 to 100 Hz Thump: The "punch you in the chest" range of the kick
 100 to 200 Hz Body: This is the "meat," if you will, of the kick sound
 200 to 2,000 Hz Ring: Typically cut these frequencies in a large band if you have issues with ringing and muddy sounds
 2,000 to 4,000 Hz Beater Attack: This is the range to look for the "thwack" sound of the beater, critical for getting that "basketball bouncing" kick sound


150 Hz and Below  

Rumble: Wind and breathe. Low shelf cut all this out.

 3,000 Hz This is the screaming baby frequency - feels like being poked in the ear canal with a chopstick. Generally cut this for those high piercing notes. Wider band, -10dB


150 Hz and Below 

     Rumble: Usually can hear the body shell noise and bumps. Cut all this out.

450 Hz Honk / Boxy: Might need to cut this. Narrow band – or you may lose the wood.
3,000 Hz This is the screaming baby frequency - feels like being poked in the ear canal with a chopstick. Generally cut this for those high piercing notes. Wider band, -10dB

Feedback Frequencies

Feedback frequencies can vary depending on room acoustics and microphones. Its best to ring out your mics before the gig to find these exactly.

Generally you may need to cut 2,000 Hz and 4,000 Hz for the high end feedback. Sometimes you may need to cut the low end hum at 500Hz.




colour temperature chartHuman eyes are far more sophisticated than video cameras. When you look at a white T-shirt outdoors, it looks white. In an office lit with fluorescent tubes, it still looks white. Even in your living room at night, it looks white. This is because your eye and brain will adjust for the changes in white colour temperature.

On the other hand, if a camera set for use indoors videos the T-shirt outdoors, it will look light blue. In an office the T-shirt will look light green. If the camera is set outdoors - a video of a white T-shirt under a regular living room light will look orange.

Cameras need to change their "white balance" depending on the type of light they are shooting in order for white to look truely white. What we are doing here is adjusting the combinations of red and blue in relationship with green signals coming from the camera sensor. The unit "K" is for temperature Kelvin.